Everything has become advanced and efficient in the technology world, and the flat plate panel one of them. It is a fantastic idea that performs excellent work using solar heat.
The flat plate panel is also known as a flat plate collector.
It must be fixed on the angle where the sun rays reach directly to the panel. When it is set on a perfect angle, it will yield maximum heating during hot days or a particular season, or for whole years due to its heating absorption properties.
What is a Solar Flat Plate Panel Water Heater?
A solar hot water panel is constructed as a shallow big flat box. That is usually mounted on the roof. That plate consumes sun heat, helps heat water, and transfers heated water to the whole house by metal hollow pipes lines.
Flat Plate Collector varieties
There are two varieties of FPC that are
The covered Fpcs used to absorb high yield absorbers for high utility. The pattern of flat plate panels is tubular, parasoleils, distillation, and dryers.
Moreover, The solar heating system exchanges solar energy into heat energy, and this heat energy is used to convert cold water into hot water. Plus, that energy to heat water in the home for bathing, washing, and even heat outdoor swimming pools. It is a cost-effective option for most residential and small commercial hot water applications. Its construction is simple and relatively easy to install. If we compare other water heating systems, they are expensive and not capable of delivering the necessary hot water at the required temperature.
They are typically installed on the roof because it consists of large heat absorbing plates. These plants have large copper or aluminum sheets. They are both excellent heat conductors and have black chemical paint finishing, which helps absorb as much solar radiation as possible for maximum efficiency. The bottom surface before the copper application has many parallel water tubes that are known as risers. These tubes are also made of high-quality copper of aluminum solid material. And to increase temperatures and copper plate gets hotter, this heat is conducted through the risers, and then groundwater will be heated inside the copper tube, which is then used by the household.
Direct and Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems
You may have seen many ways to heat water for household use but the solar heating water system. It is the best and cheapest way to consume solar energy into heat energy and get hot water easily. This is only possible with the use of flat plate solar collectors. The solar heating system can absorb maximum. Heat and also store for additional day and night use and as per your need. So, there are two different ways solar thermal systems are.
Direct Solar Water Heater System
A direct solar heating system, also known as an open-loop system. In this process, water circulates the system through a pump, and then hot water directly runs to the hot water storage tank then supplies household appliances when needed. The water circulates again and leaves the flat plate collector, and returns to the tank in a loop process. The pump runs at the ultra-slow speed of 12 volts. Usually, This process is not better for cold climates and works best in warm climates.
Indirect Solar Thermal System
Indirect hot water systems are also known as closed-loop systems. It differs from the open-loop system. This process works as a heat exchanger, which is separate from the solar flat plate collector to heat the water in the storage tank. It is an active closed-loop system that requires pumps to circulate hot water around the closed-loop system. This also has an antifreeze system of heat water and is kept separate from the leading domestic hot water supply. One of the main advantages of this closed-loop indirect heating system is that the antifreeze solution is helpful in these areas where the temperature falls below the freezing point.
Size Of Solar Flat Plate Panel
These flat-plate collectors come in different sizes. They usually range about 32 square feet or 3 square meters, weighing between 100-200 kilograms.
In general, If you buy one square foot flat at the panel, they will produce about two gallons per day to well over 70oC temperature. At the same time, a 30-20 square feet panel can produce 60 gallons of heated water with a standard hot water storage tank.
What Does Flat Plate Collector Mean?
Primary facts about flat plate panel design are maximizing absorption, minimizing reflection, and radiation losses. It produced low temperatures for a long duration. The flat plate collector is basically a heat exchanger that transfers the incident sunlight’s radiant energy to the sensible heat of a working fluid-liquid or air. The term ‘flat plate’ it’s not a genuinely flat plate, but it consists of lots of flat groves or other heat absorbent items.
Flat Plate Collector Comes With Two Categories
- Liquid Or Water Heater
- Air Heater
Flat Plate Panel Construction
The function of a flat plate panel is straight forward and exciting such as a metal sheet can absorb high amounts of radiation and convert it into heat energy. The backplate must be covered with black paint to consume maximum heat and stay long to keep the warm liquid. The hollow pipe, also made of metal, has water circulation that maintains water temperature and runs to a tank for storage.
The Flat Plate Construction Consist Of These Things
- Glaze__ consists of one or more sheets of glass heat transmission material.
- Tubes__these tubes are made of metal or aluminum.
- Observer plate__ these plates are flat and grooved with tubes.
- Header__ allow to admit and discharge the fluid.
- Insulation__ prevents heat loss and preserves the back and both sides of the collector.
- Container __ container protects flat plate panels from any dust and moisture.
The absorber flat plate is made from a thin metal sheet or aluminum, and aluminum sheets are expensive. That is why some heaters usually use copper. The metal sheet size ranges in thickness from 0.2 to 0.7 mm, while the tubes, which are also metal, range in diameter from 1 to 1.5 cm.
The absorber plate and tube are both made of metal. The tube diameter is about 2 to 2.5 cm. These panels are covered with a highly transparent material that consumes the maximum amount of incoming solar radiation at the same time.
The bottom and sides are insulated by mineral rock wool or glass wool covering 2.5-2.8 cm aluminum foil, and the collector box is usually made of aluminum with solid outside protection. This panel should be placed on the roof or outside area at a 60-degree angle where the solar radiation directly reaches the entire panel.
Advantages Of Flat Plate Panel
Here are some pros and cons of flat plate collectors.
- Easy to install
- Easy to maintain
- Low cost
- Collect both beam and diffuse radiation
- Not required fixed position.
- Best for cold and warm climates
- It has a high volume heat capacity
- Highly efficient
- Can store hot water for future needs.
- One single plate can produce 40-60 gallons of hot water.
- The main drawback is that it will not perform well in cold climates where the temperature is minus degrees.